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India Employment Report 2024

The India Employment Report 2024 was recently released by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in collaboration with the Institute of Human Development (IHD).

Key Findings:

Youth Employment:

  • Nearly 83% of India’s unemployed workforce comprises young individuals.
  • The proportion of unemployed youth with secondary education or higher has almost doubled from 35.2% in 2000 to 65.7% in 2022.
  • Many educated young individuals prefer to wait for better job opportunities rather than accepting low-paying and insecure jobs.
  • A significant number of young workers lack essential skills:
    • 75% cannot send emails with attachments.
    • 60% struggle with copying and pasting files.
    • 90% cannot input a mathematical formula into a spreadsheet.
  • Employment and Unemployment Indicators:
    • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR): This measures the proportion of the working-age population (usually defined as those aged 15 to 64) that is either employed or actively seeking employment.
    • Worker Population Ratio (WPR): This indicates the proportion of the working-age population that is employed.
    • Unemployment Rate (UR): This represents the proportion of the labour force that is unemployed and actively seeking employment.
  • The information provided suggests that from 2000 to 2018, both LFPR and WPR worsened, while the Unemployment Rate increased. However, post-2019, there has been an improvement in these indicators.

Farm & Non-Farm Employment:

  • Insufficient growth of non-farm sectors hampers their capacity to absorb workers from agriculture.
  • Non-farm employment exhibited faster growth compared to farm employment until 2018. During this period, labor from agriculture primarily shifted to the construction and services sectors.

Formal and Informal Jobs:

  • Approximately 90% of workers are engaged in informal employment.
  • The proportion of regular employment increased until 2018 but declined thereafter.
  • Livelihood insecurity is prevalent, particularly in the non-agricultural organized sector.
  • Social protection coverage is limited for workers, and contractual work is becoming more prevalent.

Women Employment:

  • India struggles with a notable gender gap in the labor market, characterized by low rates of female participation.
  • Unemployment poses a significant challenge for young women, particularly those with higher education.

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Employment:

  • Despite affirmative action and targeted policies, social inequalities are on the rise.
  • Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes encounter difficulties in accessing better job opportunities.
  • Economic necessity drives higher work participation among these groups, but they often find themselves engaged in low-paid temporary and informal employment.
  • Educational attainment has seen progress across all groups, yet social hierarchies within these communities persist.

Daily Poser:

What percentage of India’s unemployed workforce is comprised of young people, according to the India Employment Report 2024?

a) 65.7%

b) 83%

c) 35.2%

d) 50%